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Socio Economic Caste Census 2011

Study Material > Economics
  • SECC-2011 is a study of socio economic status of rural and urban households and allows ranking of households based on predefined parameters.
  • SECC 2011 has three census components which were conducted by three separate authorities but under the overall coordination of Department of Rural Development in the Government of India.
    1. Census in Rural Area has been conducted by the Department of Rural Development (DoRD).
    2. Census in Urban areas is under the administrative jurisdiction of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA).
    3. Caste Census is under the administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs: Registrar General of India (RGI) and Census Commissioner of India.

 Districts Covered


  • This is the first time such a comprehensive exercise is being carried out for both rural and urban India. The SECC, 2011 has the following three objectives:
    1. To enable households to be ranked based on their socioeconomic status. State Governments can then prepare a list of families living below the poverty line
    2. To make available authentic information that will enable castewise population enumeration of the country
    3. To make available authentic information regarding the socioeconomic condition, and education status of various castes and sections of the population
  • The shortcomings of the 2002 BPL survey are being addressed comprehensively in the SECC, 2011.
  • The SECC, 2011 is being conducted simultaneously for rural and urban areas, by the respective State Government and Union Territory Administration, with technical and fi nancial support from the Government of India.
  • Why is the SECC, 2011 being carried out?
    1. The SECC, 2011 will objectively rank households based on their socio-economic status, which would be the basis for identification of households living below the poverty line.
    2. This exercise will help to better target government schemes to the right beneficiaries, and ensure that all eligible beneficiaries are covered, while all ineligible beneficiaries are excluded.
    3. Households identified as highly deprived will have the highest inclusion priority under Government welfare schemes.
    4. The last exercise to identify people living below the poverty line was conducted in 2002. Based on the learning from this exercise the methodology has been comprehensively revised to ensure complete coverage, transparency and objective identification of households based on socio economic parameters.
  • When will the SECC, 2011 take place?
    1. The SECC, 2011 is being conducted between June 2011 and 31st December 2011. It was launched on 29th June 2011 in Hazemora Block in West Tripura
  • What is the difference between SECC, 2011 and the Planning Commission estimates of poverty?
    1. The Planning Commission provides estimates of the percentage of the rural and urban population living below the poverty line in different States/UTs. That is, it estimates the “how much” of poverty. The SECC, 2011 on the other hand, will provide information on the “who” of the population living below the poverty line. Thus, for example, the Planning Commission estimate for a State could be that say 55% of the rural population and say 30% of the urban population is living below the poverty line. SECC, 2011 will enable that particular State to identify the households who comprise this 55% and 30% respectively.
  • Has the SECC, 2011 methodology been pilot tested?
    1. Rural areas: The methodology for rural areas has been finalized after field testing several methodologies; and using the recommendations of the Saxena Expert Group as the reference point. The fi eld testing was carried out in two stages. First, a socio-economic census of 254 villages was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Second, a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) technique was used to rank households in the same village according to several well-being criteria. The results of 161 villages spread over 29 states, covering 43,000 rural households have been used to fi nalize the criteria used in the SECC, 2011 for rural areas.
    2. Urban areas: The Planning Commission appointed the Hashim Committee Expert Group to identify the methodology to conduct the SECC in urban areas. The data generated will be analyzed, and on the basis of this, the Committee will determine the methodology for identifi cation of poor households in urban areas.
  • How will the households be ranked in rural areas?

Households will be ranked through a three-step process:

    1. A set of households will be automatically EXCLUDED : A household with any of the following will be excluded automatically:
      1. Motorized two/three/four wheeler/ fishing boat/ Mechanized three/four wheeler agricultural equipment 
      2. Kisan Credit Card with credit limit of Rs. 50,000 and above
      3. Household with any member as a Government employee 
      4. Households with non-agricultural enterprises registered with the Government
      5. Any member of the family earning more than Rs. 10,000 per month Paying income tax  Paying professional tax
      6. Three or more rooms with all rooms having pucca walls and roof
      7. Own a refrigerator
      8. Own Landline phone 
      9. Own 2.5 acres or more of irrigated land with at least 1 irrigation equipment 5 acres or more of irrigated land for two or more crop seasons 
      10. Owning at least 7.5 acres of land or more with at least one irrigation equipment
    2. A set of households will be automatically INCLUDED: A household with any of the following will be included automatically:
      1. Households without shelter
      2. Destitute/ living on alms
      3. Manual scavengers
      4. Primitive tribal groups
      5. Legally released bonded labourers
    3. The remaining households will be ranked using 7 Deprivation Indicators. Households with the highest deprivation score will have the highest priority for inclusion in the list of households below the poverty level.The following are the deprivation indicators:
      1. Households with only one room, kucha walls and kucha roof
      2. No adult member between the ages of 16 and 59
      3. Female headed households with no adult male member between 16 and 59
      4. Households with disabled member and no able bodied adult member  SC/ST households 
      5. Households with no literate adult above 25 years
      6. Landless households deriving a major part of their income from manual casual labour
  • Who will collect the information in rural areas?
    1. Enumerators appointed by the State Government will carry out the exercise in each Enumeration Block. They will be accompanied by a Data Entry Operator
  • How will the information be collected?
    1. Enumerators will ask respondents questions from the questionnaire they have with them. The data entry operator will enter the responses into the electronic handheld device (Tablet PC) Respondents need not show document proof in support of the information they are providing. However, respondents will be expected to provide correct and authentic information, which can be verifi ed by the Enumerator  After the data collection is complete, the Enumerator will give the respondent an acknowledgement slip duly signed by the Enumerator and the Data Entry Operator  The Enumerator will paste a sticker on the outside wall of the respondent’s house
  • Note: Portable Handheld Device (Tablet PC) was Developed by Bharat Electronics Ltd For the Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011

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