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Must Know GK > State
  • The ancient Sanskrit texts, such as the Mahabharata epic, mentions Manipur as the place where Arjuna meets and falls in love with Chitrāngadā. Shiva and Parvati are part of the legendary Khamba-Thoibi love story in Manipur tradition. Other tradition describes the history of Manipur as a trading route between Indian subcontinent, China and southeast Asia.
  • Boundaries of Manipur Touches with: Nagaland, Assam, Mizoram, Myanmar. Nagaland to its north, Mizoram to its south, Assam to its west, and shares international border with Myanmar to its east.
  • The state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres (8,621 sq mi) and has a population of almost 3 million, including the Meitei, who are the majority group in the state.
  • During the British Rule, the Kingdom of Manipur was one of the princely states. Between 1917 and 1939, the people of Manipur pressed for their rights against the British Rule. By the late 1930s, the princely state of Manipur negotiated with the British administration its preference to be part of India, rather than Burma. These negotiations were cut short with the outbreak of World War II. On 21 September 1949, Maharaja Budhachandrasigned a Treaty of Accession merging the kingdom into India. This merger has been disputed by groups in Manipur as having been completed without consensus and under duress. The dispute and differing visions for the future has resulted in a 50-year insurgency in the state for independence from India, as well as in repeated episodes of violence among ethnic groups in the state.
  • The Meitei ethnic group, represents 53% of the population of Manipur state. The main language of the state is Meitei (also known as Manipuri). By comparison, indigenous tribal peoplesconstitute 20% of the state population; they are distinguished by dialects and cultures that are often village-based. Manipur's ethnic groups practice a variety of religions. According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the major religion in the state, closely followed by Christianity. Other religions include Islam, Sanamahism, Buddhism etc.
  • Manipur has primarily an agrarian economy, with significant hydroelectric power generation potential. It is connected to other areas by daily flights through Imphal airport, the second largest in northeastern India. Manipur is home to many sports, the origin of Manipuri dance, and is credited with introducing polo to Europeans.
  • The state has four major river basins: the Barak River Basin(Barak Valley) to the west, the Manipur River Basinin central Manipur, the Yu River Basin in the east, and a portion of the Lanye River Basin in the north.
  • The Barak River, the largest river of Manipur, originates in the Manipur Hills and is joined by tributaries, such as the Irang, Maku, and Tuivai. After its junction with the Tuivai, the Barak River turns north, forms the border with Assam State, and then enters the Cachar Assam just above Lakhipur. 
  • The Manipur river basin has eight major rivers: the Manipur, Imphal, Iril, Nambul, Sekmai, Chakpi, Thoubal and Khuga. All these rivers originate from the surrounding hills. Manipur river deposit their load in Loktak lake which is in the inner area of Manipur.
  • Siroy hill range is the abode of Siroy Lily(Lilium Mackineae), the flower not found elsewhere in the world.
  • Zuko valley has a temperate climate and is the only habitat of the enemic and the rarest species Dzuko Lily
  • The soil cover can be divided into two broad types, viz. the red ferruginous soil in the hill area and the alluvium in the valley.
  • The Meiteiconstitute a majority of the state's population. According to 1891 census Meitei were recorded as a forest tribe. In 1901, the Meitei were recorded as the main ethnicity of Manipur. They live primarily in the state's valley region. The Meitei are not recognized as a scheduled tribe in the Indian constitution.
  • Kukis and Nagas are the major tribe conglomerates. The Nagas in Manipur are further sub-divided into sub-tribes:  Tangkhul,  Maram,  Poumai,  Angami,  Chakhesang,  Liangmai,  Rongmei,  Zeme, and Mao.
  • Manipur's climate and soil conditions make it ideally suited for horticultural crops. Growing there are rare and exotic medicinal and aromatic plants. Some cash crops suited for Manipur include Lychee, Cashew, Walnut, Orange, Lemon, Pineapple, Papaya, Passion Fruit, Peach, Pearand Plum. The state is covered with over 3,000 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi) of bamboo forests, making it one of India's largest contributor to its bamboo industry.
  • Tulihal Airport, Changangei, Imphal, the only airport of Manipur, connects directly with Delhi, Kolkata, Guwahati, and Agartala. It has been upgraded as an International airport. As India's second largest airport in the northeast, it serves as a key logistical centre for northeastern states.
  • National Highway NH-39 links Manipur with the rest of the country through the railway stations at Dimapurin Nagaland at a distance of 215 km (134 mi) from Imphal. National Highway 53 (India) connects Manipur with another railway station at Silchar in Assam, which is 269 km (167 mi) away from Imphal. 
  • Loktak Lake which is located in Manipur state is the largest freshwater lake in Northeast India, and is famous for the phumdis (heterogeneous mass of vegetation, soil, and organic matter at various stages of decomposition) floating over it. Keibul Lamjaois the only floating national park in the world.
  • The Keibul Lamjao National Parkis the last natural refuge of the endangered sangai(state animal)Rucervus eldii eldii or Manipur brown-antlered deer (Cervus eldi eldi), one of three subspecies of Eld's deer. This ancient lake plays an important role in the economy of Manipur. It serves as a source of water for hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply. The lake is also a source of livelihood for the rural fishermen who live in the surrounding areas and on phumdis, also known as “phumshongs”. 
  • Sangai, the Brown-antlered deer is found only in Manipur. Sangai is surviving in its natural habitat at Keibul Lamjo National Park.
  • National Parks: 
    1. Keibul Lamjao National Park
    2. Sirohi national Park
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries: Yagoupokpi Lokchao
  • Manipuri dance also known as Jagoi, is one of the major Indian classical dance forms, named after the state of Manipur. It is particularly known for its Hindu Vaishnavismthemes, and exquisite performances of love-inspired dance drama of Radha-Krishna called Raslila. However, the dance is also performed to themes related to Shaivism, Shaktism and regional deities such as Umang Lai during Lai Haraoba. The roots of Manipuri dance, as with all classical Indian dances, is the ancient Hindu Sanskrit text Natya Shastra, but with influences from the culture fusion between India and southeast Asia.
  • Considering the ecological status and its biodiversity values, the lake was initially designated as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention on 23 March 1990. It was also listed under the Montreux Record on 16 June 1993, "a record of Ramsar sites where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring or are likely to occur".
  • Some Interesting facts:
  • Capital – Imphal
  • Official Language – Meithei (Manipuri) and English Other Spoken Languages – Sino Tibetan languages.
  • Area – 22, 237 Sq Km
  • Area Rank – 23rd
  • Population – 25,70,390
  • Population Rank – 22nd
  • Population Density – 122/Sq Km
  • Sex Ratio – 987 females per 1000 male
  • Sex Ratio Rank – 5th
  • Literacy Rate – 79.85 %
  • Literacy Rank – 9th
  • No of Districts – 9
  • Assembly seats – 60 (Unicameral)
  • Lok sabha seta – 2
  • Rajya sabha seats – 1
  • Created on – 21 Jan 1972
  • First Chief Minister – Mairembam Koireng Singh
  • First Governor – B K Nehru
  • State Tree – Uningthou
  • State Flower – Siroi Lily
  • State Animal – Sangai
  • State Bird – Nongyeen
  • It was a Union territory from 1956 and became full fledged state from 1972.
  • The earlier name of Manipur was Kangleipak or Meeteileipak.
  • The origin of European Polo game lies in Manipur.
  • Locals used to play a game riding on horseback which they called Pulu.
  • The British spread this game as modern Polo to England during colonial period.
  • The advent of Japanese forces to India was checked after they were defeated by British near the border of Imphal during World War II.
  • The King of Manipur Princely state Bodchandra Singh signed the instrument of accession in 1949 and merged the princely state to union of India.
  • Manipur was called as Jewel of India by Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • Manipur borders with 3 states – Nagaland in north, Mizoram in southwest, Assam in northwest. It also shares international boundary with Myanmar in east. Length of international border along with Myanmar is 398 Km.
  • Mount Iso of Senapati district is the highest peak of state with an altitude of 2,994 m.
  • Manipur has two distinct physical region:   
    1. Outlying area of rugged hills and narrow valley.
    2. Flat plain of inner area.
  • River Barak is the largest river of Manipur.
  • Loktak lake which is the biggest fresh water lake of northeast India is quite popular.
  • It is famous for its unique Phumdis – the floating islands Keibul Lamjao is the only one floating national park of the world floats over the Loktak lake.
  • As per 2011 census, Manipur has the highest sex ratio (987 females per 1000 male) among all seven sister states of north-east.
  • Economy of the state is poor and as per year 2014 data, Manipur stands at third last place in terms of GDP per capita. Handloom weaving is the biggest industry of the state and accounts for one third of household workers This state is the first to introduce Oak Tussar Industry (Sericulture – Silk farming). Other industries include bamboo and cane articles, rice mills, edible oil crushing and leather goods. Main Agriculture products of Manipur – Paddy, wheat, maize.
  • Mineral resources – limestone
  • Manipur has literacy rate of 79.85 % which is well above of India’s average literacy rate of 74.04 %. Manipur stands at 9th rank among Indian states in terms of literacy.
  • Mukna (Wrestling) is a popular sport of the state.
  • The main tribal group of Manipur is Meetei which constitutes of 27 % population.
  • About 46 % of people are Hindus and 34 % are Christians while remaining 10 % are from different folk religious groups.
  • Manipuri is the well known and popular classical dance form which is based on the instances of Lord Krishna and Radha.
  • Festivals include Dol jatra, Lai Haraoba, Rasa leela, Cheiraoba, Gaan-Nagai, Yaoshang(Holi) and christmas.
  • M C Mary Kom – The famous five time World Boxing champion who also won medal in Olympics.
  • Irom C Sharmila – She is famous socialist and political activist. She is also called as Iron Lady of Manipur.


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